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Micro implementations of Unix

Jorn Barger November 2002


1968: Ken Thompson begins writing for 4yo $72k PDP-7 w/8kb of 18-bit words, using GE-635 cross-assembler [cite] (to run Space Travel game: specs)

1969: Thompson writes 1st Unix on PDP-7 in one month [info] based on Multics [interview] [comparison] [pix] one week each for original kernel, shell, editor, and assembler [cite] (assembler saves to 'a.out')

original process-table allowed only one process each for two terminals, swapped from RAM to disk; each new process had to overwrite the shell (and its memories), leaving only a bootstrap-loader; I/O already redirectable (w/standard files 0 and 1) [cite] adding 'fork' and 'exec' extended this process-table with minimal new code

1971: Jan-Mar: Unix rewritten for PDP-11/20 (os uses 16k, files limited to 64kb due to PDP-11 wordsize of 16 bits) adds pathnames [cite]

1971: 03Nov: Unix version 1 written in B [cite] [manual pdf] (60+ commands)

1972 [timeline]

1972: 30yo Gary Kildall gets PhD in compsci from U of Washington [cite]

1972: Kildall starts experimenting with $25 4004, consulting for Intel [cite]

1972: 06Dec: Unix version 2 written mostly by Thompson in C [cite]

1973 [timeline]

1973: 15Jan: Unix version 3 introduces pipes [cite] [man pages] text streams as universal interface [cite] multiprogramming added

1973: Jul: DEC's realtime os RT-11 [info] [more]

1973: Boston Children's Museum becomes 1st Unix licensee [cite]

1973: 31Aug: Unix kernel rewritten in C [archive]

1973: Nov: Unix version 4 [cite] [man pages]

1973: Shugart (later Seagate) introduces 8" floppy drive [cite] Kildall will acquire one and write CP/M to control it

1973: Dec: 1st production run of Intel 8080 [cite] (Kildall gets one of these, too)

1974 [timeline]

1974? AT&T decides to supply Unix-source free to academia [cite]

1974: 1st CP/M (Control Program/Monitor) from Kildall's MAA (Microcomputer Applications Associates) for 8080 family [cite] [cite] [manuals] [source]

1974: Jun: Unix version 5 [cite] [source code]

1974: Jul: R&T's CACM paper on Unix (earliest Kildall would have heard of it)

1974: summer: Heinz Lycklama [bio] produces 8kb subset of Unix for DEC's LSI-11 microprocessor, called LSI-UNIX or LSX [info]

"If only Western Electric had found a way to offer binary licenses for the UNIX system back then, the UNIX system would be running on all PC's today rather than DOS/Windows."

1975 [timeline]

1975: Feb: (Jun?) DEC releases LSI-11 microcomputer (16-bit board w/8k) [info] later sold by Western Digital as WD-16, used in Alpha Micro AM-1010, Terak 8510/a workstation, Heath/Zenith H-11 [site]

LSI-Unix not released?

1975: Apr? Micro-Soft founded [cite]

1975: May: Unix version 6 [cite] [source code]

1975: Jul? Unix released to Waterloo and Toronto [cite]

no-date: University of Waterloo licenses Unix v6 $14k? ports to PDP11 and 68000

1976 [timeline]

1976: 03Feb: Gates publishes piracy-complaint [cite]

1976: MOS ships 6502 [cite]

1976: Cromemco incorporates [history]

1976: Kildall incorporates MAA as 'Intergalactic Digital Research' [cite] (later DRI)

1976: Ron Baecker [homepage] founds Human Computing Resources (HCR) in Toronto, fails with page-layout system for newspapers, switches to Unix in 1977, gets source license for $20k? [cite]

1976: Dec: Shugart introduces 5.25" floppy (size based on cocktail napkin) [cite]

1977: early: first 'Berkeley Software Distribution' with Pascal and editor (ex) [cite] $50 for tape [cite] for PDP only

1977: Unix v6 ported for 1st time, to Interdata [proposal] [memoir] [source]

1977: May: Lycklama's 'Mini Unix' subset of v6 for PDP11s w/o memory-management [specs] [source code] (12kb expansion of LSX)

1977: Interactive Systems 1st company to support Unix [cite] Peter Wiener from Yale

1977: 1st commercial Unix from Interactive (IS/1, still PDP-11 only) [cite]

1977: 6809 [info]

1977: IMSAI licenses CP/M from DRI for $25k [cite]

1977: Cromemco CDOS [info]

1977? Randall Howard, 16yo Johann George and Robert Swartz (U of Waterloo grads) write Unix clone 'Coherent' (for PDP?) [cite]

1977: Robert Swartz [GooJa] repositions father's paint company (Mark Williams Chemical Company named after William Mark Swartz) as software house 'Mark Williams Company', porting Coherent to 8088 [history] Swartz and/or Stephen Davis hire topnotch crew [cite]

1978: Jan? Heathkit version of LSI-11 w/8kb for $1300 [cite] [ad] with HT-11 os (modified DEC RT-11) [pix] required signing DEC license agreement [cite]

1978: Boston Children's Museum releases not-for-profit Unix-demo Tynix for LSI-11 [Byte Jan81] Bill Mayhew [info]

1978: Unix Timesharing System version 7 (UTS) [cite]

1979: PJ Plauger's 'Idris' is Unix clone for PDP-11 [cite] [history] [still posting] [ditto] purposely incompatible [cite]

1978: mid: Second Berkeley Software Distribution (2BSD) with Pascal, vi, termcap, Mail, more, csh, ex

1978: 08Jun: Intel releases 16-bit 8086 [cite] [tech] [critique] designed in ten weeks as stopgap [cite]

1978: Berkeley adds virtual memory to Unix 7 [cite]

1979: Jan: Unix version 7 [source code] [pdf manual] adds Bourne shell, awk, lint, make, uucp; find, cpio, expr; large file-systems, unlimited users [cite] kernel is still just 40kb

no-date: AT&T tightens academic license [cite]

no-date: MSD Systems sells LSI-11 boxes with HCR Xenix [cite]

1979: (1978?) Santa Cruz Operation (SCO) founded by Larry and Doug Michels (father and son) to create Unix ports [cite] [links]

1979: Motorola introduces 68000 16-bit CPU [info] no restartable instructions, so Unix must swap (no paging) [cite]

1979: Zilog introduces Z8000 [info]

1979: CP/M being rewritten to support larger filesystems [cite]

1979: IBM prototypes PC using still-scarce 68000 (will substitute cheaper 8088, used in DisplayWriter) [cite]

1979: Yourdon [bio] announces Unix-like CP/M-compatible 'Omnix' but withdraws it as too buggy [Byte Jan81]

1979: Zilog Zeus [cite]

1979: May: 1st prototype of Seattle's 8086 board [cite][cite] Paterson ports MS Basic to 8086

1979: 01Jun: Intel introduces 8088 as discount 8-bit version of 8086 [cite] IBM will choose 8088 for 'short run' PC [info]

1979: Jun: MS demos 8086 Standalone BASIC on Seattle's card w/o os [cite]

1979: Nov: Seattle ships os-less 8086 cards w/MS BASIC [cite]

1979: Dec: 3BSD is 32-bit port of 2BSD w/virtual memory and C shell [cite]

1979? Microsoft begs Western Electric for high-volume commercial license [BillG] [date]

1979? MS orders PDP-11 Xenix from HCR [cite]

1979??? MS markets 1st Xenix? [cite] not released until 1983? [cite]

no-date: Siemens gets license?

no-date: SCO and HCR are two main commercial Unix houses? [claim]

MS will license Xenix to OEMs (Intel, Tandy, Altos, SCO, etc.) [cite]

1979-1980? INTERactive does Z8000 port [Landauer-email]

1980 [timeline]

1980: Whitesmiths' Idris [Byte Jan81]

1980: Apollo founded [cite]

1981: Jeff Schreibman founds Unisoft and writes UniPlus [cite] [history]

1980: ElectroLabs (or Software Labs) OS-1 (Unix-like) [Byte Jan81]

1980: Feb: MS starts development of 8086 Xenix [cite] [SCO?]

1980: Apr: MS licenses CP/M from DRI for Apple 2 Softcards [cite]

1980: Apr: Seattle decides to give up on delayed CP/M-86 [cite]

24yo Tim Paterson starts writing QDOS [cite] [tech] pure CP/M 1.4 ripoff? [cite]

"The only 8086 software-development tools available to Seattle Computer at that time were an assembler that ran on the Z80 under CP/M and a monitor/debugger that fit into a 2K-byte EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory). Both of these tools had been developed in house." [cite]

1980: Jul? IBM approaches MS tentatively [1981??]

1980: Aug: Seattle starts shipping QDOS 0.10 (Quick and Dirty) [cite]

1980: 25Aug: Microsoft's 1st-ever os 'Xenix' announced for 8086, Z8000, 68000, and PDP-11, based partly on BSD [cite] [cite] [history] 1.0 based on v6 [cite]

1980: Morrow announces Z80 Unix-alike [Byte Jan81]

1980??? SCO distributes Microsoft Xenix [cite]

1980: autumn: 68000 starts shipping in quantity [Byte Jan81]

1980: Oct: 4BSD incl Franz Lisp, DARPA enhancements [cite]

1980: late: IBM gets serious with MS [cite]

1980: Oct: Microsoft starts developing DOS? [cite]

no-date: Kildall balks at the IBM nondisclosure agreement?

1980: Dec: Seattle renames 86-DOS, v 0.3 [cite]

1980: Intel sells 200k 8086s [Byte Feb81]

1980: Onyx C8002 w/Z8000 1st micro to run Unix, for $20k [cite] [cite] [history]

1980: Andy Bechtolsheim starts licensing Sun board for $10k [cite] 6 or 7 sales in 1981; 1st is Codata (ports Lucasfilms/Sprocket Unix and UniSoft) [cite]

1981 [timeline]

1981: HCR's Unity [cite]

no-date: MS resells HCR 68000 Xenix to Fortune Systems, Charles River Data Systems and Tandy (TRS-16) [cite]

1981: MS's Bob Greenberg ports PDP-11 v7 to Codata Z8000 [cite] [date]

1981: Jan: Cromemco advertising 68000 Cromix as 'Unix-like, multi-user, multi-tasking, tree directory' $295 [Byte]

Whitesmiths claims Idris compatible with Unix v6, runs on LSI-11 and PDP-11 'from $1000' [Byte]

1981: Onyx's Onix [cite] Z8000 Unix port? [cite]

UniFlex from Technical Systems Consultants: multi-user, multi-tasking, for 68000 and 6809 [Byte]

Oasis from Phase One: multi-user, multi-tasking, for Altos, Cromemco, North Star, Onyx, TRS80 Mod II, Vector Graphic [Byte]

OS-9 from Microware: multitasking for 6809 [Byte]

no-date: Introl's INOS for Artisan 6809 [cite]

1981: Jan? Digital releases CP/M-86 for $500 [cite] [Byte]

1981: 200k machines running CP/M [cite]

no-date: DRI IPO

no-date: Western Electric charging $12k for single license [Byte Feb81]

no-date: UniSoft starts porting v7 to 68000 and Z8000? [cite] (incl AUX for Apple, Pacific Microcomputer, Cadmus... 120 by 1982?)

1981: Codata is 1st Sun licensee, ports Unix [cite]

1981: Feb: 86-DOS runs on IBM prototype [cite]

1981: winter: MS tells Unix users that Xenix will be ported to TI9900, IBM Series/1, and Point 4 Data Corp systems [Byte Feb81]

1981: DRI buys VAX for internal Unix use [Byte Feb81]

1981: Feb: TriData SST runs Xenix on Z8001 [Byte Feb81]

1981: Apr: Seattle's 86-DOS 1.0 [cite] 4000 lines of assembly [cite]

1981: Apr: OSM's MUSE (Multi-User System Executive) for Zeus (or Ze[mu]s) 'micro mainframes' Z80, runs CP/M [Byte Apr81]

no-date: MP/M [theory]

1981: Apr: Dynabyte's DOS Level 4 (MP/M compatible) [Byte Apr81]

Morrow's M/OS for Z80A ('Decision I'?), claims Unix compatible (no such claim by Oct81!)

North Star Horizon with TSS/A Application System or TSS/C Multi-user CP/M

Dual 68000 w/UniSoft Unix v7

Idris for: S68K, R11, B80

Wicat Operating System for Wicat 68000

OASIS-16 for 8086, 68000,, Z8000, LSI-11

MSP/68000 Real Time Multi-tasking Operating System (Hemenway?)

XVX multiuser operating system for 68000 from Xavax

BOS/TurboDOS (Business Operating Systems, CP/M compatible)

COSMOS interrupt-driven multi-user disk operaing system for Z80A (SBC/Jade?)

MicroShell from New Generation ($150 CP/M program)

Thomas and Yates "User Guide to the Unix System"

1981: Jun: Byte magazine article on Xenix by MS product-mng [cite]

1981: Xenix 2.0 by MS/SCO [cite] based on v7 [cite]

1981: Xenix-11 on PDP-11 [cite]

Vortex's MARC for CP/M boxes [info]

1981: Jul: Sun's 68000 workstations shipping with UniSoft or MS Xenix? [cite] [history&tech] (other Sun-board boxes by Codata, Cyb, Pacific, Callan, and Forward?)

1981? MS develops 1st Xenix port on Suns? [cite]

no-date: Unix lookalikes include Omnyx?

1981: 27Jul: Microsoft buys 86-DOS from Seattle Computer for $25k, changes name to MS-DOS, charges $40 [cite] [cite] [cite]

DIR a:
DIR a:/p
OPEN a:oldfile for input as #1
OPEN b:newfile for output as #2
LIST a:myfile
LLIST a:myfile
RENAME a:myfile:oldfile
KILL a:myfile

no-date: Lifeboat Associates sells MS-DOS as SB-86 [cite]

1981: 12Aug: IBM announces PC [cite] choice of $40 PC-DOS or $240 CP/M-86 [cite] 4.77MHz 8088, 64k, floppy drive, for $3000 [cite]

no-date: CP/M 2.2

1981? 37yo professor Andy Tanenbaum of Free University in Amsterdam starts work on Minix teaching-system in response to AT&T's stricter license [cite]

1981: Sep: Charles River announces Universe 68 (68000) with UNOS [cite] 3yrs development

1981: Oct: IBM ships PC [hardware info]

Knowology's Unica is set of Unix-like utilities for CP/M [Byte Oct81]

1981: Oct: comparison of micro Unix-alikes [excellent]

1981: Oct: MS 'Virnix' is planned virtual-memory Xenix

1981: Nov: expected ship-date of 68k Idris [Oct81 info] $22k for source

Q1 Corp doing own port of PDP-11 Idris to 68000? [cite]

Apollo dual-68000 vaguely Unix-like [cite]

1981: 08Dec: Microsoft and SCO sign letter of intent for SCO to be 2nd-source of Xenix [cite]

no-date: IBM builds dual-68000 board set that emulates IBM 370 and runs MVT, VMS, VM [cite]

1982 [timeline]

no-date: MP/M [theory]

no-date: MS hires SCO to port Multiplan? [cite]

no-date: MS hires SCO to port Xenix? [cite]

1982: Jan: Vinod Khosla recruits Andreas (Andy) Bechtolsheim for Sun [cite]

1982: Jan: expected date of Wicat Unix for 68000 [Oct81 info]

1982: Feb: expected date of CM Technologies 68000 Xenix box [Oct81 info]

1982: 01Feb: Intel intros 80286 with protected memory mode [cite] [critique]

1982: Feb: imminent (1984?) MS Xenix 3.0 will be based on System III but include some 4.1BSD? [net.micro] [cite] IBM's version for AT will be called IBM Xenix 1.0; Tandy's version called Tandy 68000/Xenix 3.0 [cite]

1982: 22Feb: Sun incorporated [cite]

no-date: Scott McNealy moves to Sun from Oryx [cite]

no-date: Sun hires UniSoft to create 'stopgap' Unix [cite] adds MS Xenix, Lucasfilm Unix

Codata is a $3M Sunnyvale company selling standalone UNIX systems based on the SUN 68000 board. They have no license to other parts of the system.

Forward Technology is a startup Santa Clara company currently selling the SUN 68000 board and the graphics board, but intending to move into the workstation marketplace.

Pacific Microcomputer is a very small San Diego company selling the SUN 68000 board

1982: Interactive's IS/3 [cite]

1982: CMI's Serix [cite]

1982: IBM's CPIX (v7) and AOS (BSD? for RT) [cite]

1982: AT&T's 1st commercial Unix, System III [cite]

no-date: Inix

no-date: HP announces HP-UX [cite]

1982: Mar? Western Electric substantially lowers Unix-license price [Byte Mar82]

1982: Apr: 1st mention of 8088 port of Coherent [net.micro] [more] runs in 128k [specs] $500 [cite]

1982: Apr: 68000 systems (most w/Unix-alikes) avail from Charles River, Computhink, Codata, Cromemco, Dual, Empirical Rsearch Group, Evans and Sutherland, Future, Fortune, Microdasys, Omnibyte, Q1, and Wicat [Byte Apr82] Unix-alike osses are slow to write/ship

Cromix is $595 [Oct81 info]

1982: Bell Labs has inhouse Z80 version of Unix? [Byte Apr82]

1982: May: TRS-80 Model 16 w/68000 [cite] [date]

1982: Tandy's Xenix Development System [cite]

1982: May: MS-DOS 1.1 [cite] supports 320k floppies

no-date: MS claim DOS 1.25 will include Xenix-compatible pipes, process forks, multitasking, multi-user support, and networking [cite]

1982: Microsoft debuts Multiplan

1982: Jun: Sun hires Bill Joy [cite]

1982: Jun: MS-DOS 1.24
1982: Jul: MS-DOS 1.25 [cite] (supports 720k floppies?)

1982: Sun builds 68000-based Unix boxes w/'SunOS' [cite]

1982: Jun: Unix-lookalikes for 68000: [net.unix-wizards]

UniSoft v7 (Jeff Schriebman; includes BSD improvements)
Xenix 2.2 v7 (Microsoft, no BSD code)
Fortune v7 (ditto MicroDaSys, Dual)
MIT v7 (ditto Stanford, SMI, Cadlink)
Lucasfilm v7 [1981?]
Whitesmith's Idris
Wicat v7 w/MCS kernel
Charles River Data Systems UNOS
Mark Williams' Coherent (incomplete)
[most of these use Xenix or UniSoft]

"an instruction that is aborted in the middle by any sort of memory management fault cannot in general be restarted; thus, demand paging is totally impossible... [Unix] can't really survive on floppies. A 5-10Mb [harddrive] is the minimum configuration" Western Electric charging $45k for source licenses [cite] Xenix requires 5Mb plus 2Mb for compiler [cite]

1982: Jul: MS doing development on Suns? [cite] [cite] [date]

1982: LSI-11 owner chooses HCR port over SCO [cite]

1982: summer: Tandy sued because TRSDOS-16 is buggy [cite] porting of Charles River UNOS begins

1982: DRI's MP/M II v2.1 [cite]

1982: Toshiba's Tosbac UX-300 w/88000 Unix [cite] [more]

1982: Gordon Kirk director of Logica's Software Products Group (25 Unix ports, mostly Xenix) [cite]

1982: Altos 586 runs Xenix on 8086 [cite] never really usable [cite] 8087 problem [cite]

1982: Aug: Altos offers 8086 w/Xenix 2.3? [net.news.newsite] [mentioned in Oct Byte-ad, not in Apr]

1982: Aug: Multiplan for Apple and Osborne [cite]

1982: 15Sep: MS brochure claims Xenix is shipping [cite]

1982: Oct? MS trying to sell Xenix to Tandy for Model 16 [cite] Bob Powell writes buggy Z80 i/o-control code in 90 days (bugs sometimes set fire to video chips)

1982: Oct: Multiplan for IBM PC [cite]

1982: Oct: Byte ad for Columbia 8088 promises Xenix 'soon'

1982: Oct: Sun starts work on Sun 2 [cite]

1982: Nov: Microsoft promises Xenix ports for PDP-11 (just rebranded Western Electric version? cite), 8086, Z8000, and 68000 [cite]

Microsoft's old PDP/10 referred to as the "Microsoft Heating Plant" [cite]

Xenix/11 [tech]

1982: Nov: Victory Factor series uses 68000 and Uniplus [cite]

1982: Dec: date on Cromix manual [cite]

1982: Dec? Tandy caves in to MS threats and abandons UNOS port [cite] Tandy's KarlB, RonL, and JEIV start fixing bugs (Bob Snapp?) Or Tandy switches to Xenix due to storage size-limits? [cites]

no-date: Tandy ports MS Xenix 2.3 (from Apple Lisa? cite) to Model 16, calling it TRS-Xenix 1.0 [cite] ten releases to fix bugs in 1983 [cite] MS royalties $85/each

Tandy Xenix 1.3.x (v7) runs on floppies? [cite]

1982: IBM team creates CP/88 operating system [cite] written in PLAS

1983 [timeline]

1983: versions of CP/M for 68000, Z8000, and 16000 (called CP/M-68K, CP/M-Z8K, and CP/M-16K) [cite]

1983: TRS-80 Model 2000 w/186 [FAQ] Xenix-2000 ported by SCO [cite]

1983: Jan: Unix System V announced by AT&T [cite]

1983: Berkeley spins off UniSoft (1981?) and 'mt Xinu Inc' (Ed Gould, Bob Kridle) [annc]

1983: IBM explores merging DOS with Xenix [cite]

1983: Feb: SCO Xenix-286 mentioned on netnews [net.micro.pc] also Xenix-86 [net.sources] released 1985? [cite]

1983: spring: IBM XT w/8086 [cite]

1983: Mar (09Apr?): MS-DOS 2.0 rewritten from scratch, copies Unix directory structure but reverses slashes because forward-slashes were already used [cite] copies Unix surface w/o understanding logic [cite]

installable device-drivers; undocumented background processing [cite]

1983: Mar: Fortune 32:16 runs 68000 version of Unix v7 [cite] [more]

1983: Apr: '4.1cBSD' with improved filesystem [cite]

1983: Apr: MS Xenix 3.0 [cite] for 8086? [cite]

1983: May: Apple Lisa runs 68000 MS Xenix? [cite]

1983: Jun: rumor of MS non-support for Unix-compatible Multiplan? [cite]

1983: Jun: Unix Review compares six Unix-compatibles for IBM PCs [summary]

'uNETix' from Lantech ($298)
'Venix' from VenturCom ($400) [crit]
'Coherent' from Mark Williams ($500) [crit]
'QNX' from Quantum Software ($650)
'Idris' from Whitesmith's ($1100)
'Microcard 68k' from Sritek ($2695)

no-date: commercial Unix ports to x86 w/o source will fizzle [cite]

1983: Jul: John D Halamka's "The TRS-16 Unix System" in Unix magazine [cite]

1983: summer: SCO Xenix-86 released [cite] [cite] runs on 8088? [cite]

1983: Aug: 4.2BSD released [cite]

1983: autumn? MS changes direction, hands off 68000 Xenix to SCO, incl System III port [cite] SCO already a licensee for 808x port

SCO lets Tandy have source; Tandy rewrites substantially [cite]

SCO ports Xenix to Lisa? [cite] [binary]

UniSoft ports Unix to Lisa [info] [SCO/Uni comparison] [more]

SCO fails to deliver 68000 Sys V cite

1983: Dec: summary of multi-user micros [net.micro]

Xenix on the TRS-80 Model 16
Codata 68000 and Callahan machines under $10k
DUAL Systems "System/83" 68000 with 4BSD, SIII, or UniSoft
Fortune 32:16, full UNIX package called MIMIX
Fortune: v7/Berkeley 4.1BSD UNIX systems based on 68000 (FOR:PRO 1.7 is name of the UNIX)
Sage IV 68000 w/Idris
PIXEL system, UNIX system III with some BSD enhancements

1984 [timeline]

1984: Jan: Microsoft promoting Xenix [ad]

"Microsoft's own version of UNIX, called Xenix, is the only UNIX now available, tailored specifically for micros. Microsoft has added many basic features omitted by UNIX's manufacturers, and has announced the product with menus and mouse interfaces for example, for the micro user."

1984: IBM debating DOS-successor, finally chooses OS/2 [cite]

1984? at IBM, CP/88 rewritten as CP/286 [cite]

1984: Interactive's IN/ix [cite]

1984: Mar: AT&T approves Motorola's 68000-port of System V [cite]

1984: AT&T divested, Unix becomes commercial product; source code restricted

1984: Jun: AT&T 6300 w/8086 [info]

1984: 68010 chip

1984: Jan: Lauren Weinstein [GooJa] writes UUCP for Coherent [annc]

1984: DEC Ultrix on PDP-11 and VAX [cite]

no-date: DECstation's Ultrix is port of 4.2BSD [cite]

1984: IBM AT w/286

MS re-grabs Xenix-286 development from SCO for IBM AT (System V) [cite] SCO races MS to finish Tandy port first (System III, later switched to System V based on MS's buggy port, took 9 months to fix)

1984: earliest SCO copyrights on Xenix 3.x [cite]

1984? Aug: MS Xenix for PC (SCO says 1983)

1984: Aug: SCO starts Xenix-186 port for Tandy [cite]

1984: Aug: Xenix Multiplan mentioned [cite]

1984: Aug: IBM's PC/IX for ATs [cite] renamed Interactive? [cite] done by Interactive Systems [cite]

1984: Nov: TRS-80 Model 16B best-selling Unix box? [cite] TRS-Xenix 1.03? [cite]

no-date: MS hires Logica to port Xenix to 68000??? [cite]

1984-1985: Konrad Morgan of Logica's Software Products Group implements Xenix on DEC machines [email reply] [cite] more

1984: Dec: IBM Xenix Software Development Guide [cite]

1984? Torch XXX 68010 in UK runs UniPlus+ [cite]

1985 [timeline]

1985: Mar: Tandy TRS-80 Model 6000 runs 68000 Xenix 3.0 [cite] [cite] based on SCO's Lisa port [cite]

1985: Oct: AT&T 6300+ (286, used by Korn to write Korn shell? cite)

1985: AT&T Xenix 3.0 for $395 [cite]

1985: AT&T Unix PC (7300; 3B1) 68010 cpu, $10k [cite]

1985: summer: Commodore 900 Unix boxes [cite]

1985: 17Oct: Intel 80386DX can address 4 gigs [info] [cite] [critique]

no-date: MS hires SCO to help port Xenix to 386? [cite] MS loses interest in Xenix and hands off 386 to SCO [cite]

1985: Dec: comparison of IBM Xenix 1.0 and PC/IX [net.micro.pc]

1985? MS Xenix System V begins new numbering scheme: IBM calls it IBM Xenix 2.0, SCO calls it SCO Xenix 2.0 [cite] [date]

IBM version released sooner than Tandy (SCO) but buggier w/bad docs [cite]

1985: SCO Xenix-286 [cite]

1986 [timeline]

1986: MS Xenix 286

1986: SCO internally used v7-compatible 'Dynix'? [list thread] ditto

1986: IBM's AIX for 386 [cite] and RT/PC [cite] done by Interactive Systems [cite]

1986: Jun: 4.3BSD adds speed tweaks [cite]

1986: summer: Idris 2.2 ported to Atari ST [cite]

1986: Nov: Andy Tanenbaum [GooJa] [more] rewrites Unix from scratch for a teaching system on PC/XT/AT/386, released by Prentice-Hall as $80 Minix (incl 54k lines of copyrighted source code: defense) [specs] [netnews] [FAQ] [old FAQ] [old info] [history]

1987 [timeline]

1987: SCO hosts '386 Summit' and 'Xenix 386 Developer Conference' [cite]

1987: Jul? SCO Xenix 386 [cite] [GooJa] [museum]

1987: AT&T agrees to pay MS for Xenix compatibility [cite]

1987: HP-UX 1.2 [cite]

no-date: SCO sabotages Intel ABI program? [cite]

no-date: Tandy Xenix 3.2 [war stories]

no-date: Tandy 286 Xenix [war stories]

1988 [timeline]

1988? Microsoft still using Xenix for documentation and email, but not for development [Slashdot thread]

no-date: SGI's Irix for 68000? [cite]

1988: OS/2 1.0

1988: Feb: A/UX for Mac II [cite] based on UniSoft [cite]

1988: 16Jun: Intel's 80386SX with 16-bit bus [cite]

1988: AT&T invests in Sun, threatening Unix dominance [cite]

1988: Open Software Foundation (IBM, DEC, HP, et al) [cite] builds on Mach and IBM's AIX; develops Motif

1988: NeXT chooses Mach kernel [cite]

1988: Aug: MS hires DEC's Cutler [cite]; Xenix phased out for MS inhouse use? [Slashdot thread]

1988? Tandy 6000 being killed off by marketing dept? [cite]

1989 [timeline]

1989: Jun: open-source components of 4.3BSD released as Networking Release 1 [cite]

1989: Bill and Lynne Jolitz conceive free 386BSD [cite]

1989: SCO UNIX System V/386 [cite] [memoir]

1989: Microsoft buys 16% of SCO for $25M [cite]

1989: Sep: HP's 68030 Unix box

no-date: RISC-based IBM PC/RT-150

1990: SCO buys HCR [cite]

1990: early: 4.3BSD-Reno includes improved virtual memory via Mach [cite]

1990: May: discussion of 386 Minix future [comp.os.minix]

1990: May: Coherent 3.x for $99? [FAQ] [cite] (manual supposedly great)

1990: 22May: Windows 3.0, supports 386 [cite]

1990: Fred van Kempen adds Posix-compatibility to Minix [GooJa search]

1990: Jun: Jolitz demos 386 BSD at USENIX Anaheim [cite]

1990: Nov: Coherent 3.1 for $100 [GooJa]

Jan 1991 to Jul 1992: Dr Dobb's publishes series by William Jolitz on porting BSD to 386 [bib] [thread] Jan: "Porting UNIX to the 386: A Practical Approach"

1991: Feb? Berkeley includes Jolitz's free-but-incomplete 386 BSD on updated Networking Release 2 [cite]

1991: Jun: BSD Networking Release 2 includes all but six Unix files [cite]

1991: Novell buys DRI [cite]

1991: Sun announces Solaris [cite] buys Interactive from Intel

1991: Jun: Coherent 3.2 [GooJa]

1991: 01Dec: Bill Jolitz splits from BSDI over ambiguous open-source issues, destroying his work there [cite] [background] [replies] [Lynne] [reply]

1992: Jan: BSDI starts selling BSD binaries and source for $1k, setting off lawsuit by AT&T-subsidiary [info] (BSD developers reluctant to commit time with outcome uncertain, many switching to Linux)

1992: 13Mar: (not 17Mar 1991!) William and Lynne Jolitz release 386BSD 0.0 [official] [pr] [cite] more [Salon-2pg] [tech]

1992: 19Mar: Jolitz memoir "The Road Not Taken" [comp.unix.bsd]

1992: BSDI releases beta of commercial BSD/386 [cite] [defense] [thread]

Jolitz's free version was usually called 386BSD (sometimes '386 BSD' or 386/BSD), BSDI's was BSD/386 (sometimes BSDI/386) (I think)

1992: Apr: Unix Review publishes survey "Unix Variants"

1992: 11May: Coherent 4.0 for $100 [pr] 32-bit; 100k kernel runs in 1Mb

1992: 14Jul: 386BSD 0.1, eventually gets downloaded 250k times (18 month lag before 1.0, giving advantage to Linux)

1992: OS/2 2.0

1992: MS announces Windows NT

1992: NetBSD forks from 386BSD [cite] FreeBSD project turns NetBSD into distro

no-date: Unix-clone ESIX [price comparisons]

Oct 1992 to Oct 1997: Stallman posts as "Richard Stallman (rms@gnu.ai.mit.edu)" [1500 posts]

1993: Novell buys Unix (USL = Unix Systems Labs) from AT&T, settles lawsuit [cite]

1993: SCO IPO [cite]

1993: Oct: Novell gives Unix name-rights to X/Open [cite]

no-date: Novell charges Sun $82M for source license [cite]

1993: BSDI offers BSD/386 for $1000 w/source [cite] [thread]

1993: Dec: 386BSD 1.0 [tech]; FreeBSD 1.0

1994: Jun: 4.4BSD-Lite released as open-source with Novell's okay [cite] also 4.4BSD-Encumbered which required Novell source-license (BSDI, NetBSD, and FreeBSD port to Lite)

1994? OpenBSD spins off from NetBSD [cite]

1994: May: FreeBSD 1.1

Digital finances port of Linux to DEC Alpha

1995: Jan: FreeBSD 2.0

1995: 31Jan: Mark Williams Company goes out of business [cite]

1995: Jun: 4.4BSD-Lite, Release 2 [cite]

1995? MS sells Xenix to SCO

1995: SCO buys Unix from Novell [cite]

1996? MS disconnects last Xenix mail-server [cite]

1997: 12Jun: Hurd kernel version 0.2

2000: Apr: Minix retroactively open-sourced [cite]

2000: Aug: Caldera acquires (parts of) SCO

2002: Caldera changes name to SCO Group

clones: Xinu, Pcnx





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