Week2 -- Operating Systems

Reading:   www.bootdisk.com
                  Minasi, pg 274-290

outside reference:    kb.indiana.edu/data/abwa.html


operating system basic level software that controls and computer's hardware, runs programs, interacts with users, and communicates with peripheral devices.
device-driver A piece of software (program) which communicates with (sends signals to) a device, thus operating (driving) the device.
virtual memory disk space reserved to be used like RAM (via swapping or paging) whenever the system runs short of memory.
GUI a Graphical User Interface lets a user interact with the computer via pictures and symbols rather than typed text.
command line as in command-line interface, where user interacts with the computer via memorized commands which are then typed in, precisely, with a keyboard.
multi-tasking the ability of an operating system to run several programs simultaneously.
co-operative multi-tasking the application controlling the cpu must relinquish that control before another application can run.
pre-emptive multi-tasking the operating system determines which application may have access to the cpu.
filesystem 1) maintains the physical organization of data on disks, through a directory structure.
2) the organization of directories, sub-directories, and files on a partition. Examples include FAT16, FAT32, NTFS, etc...
format to prepare a disk for storing data, by installing the structure of a given filesystem.
partition is a subdivision of a disk drive. There are two types: primary partition and extended partitions.
Fault Tolerance the ability of a system to recover from equipment malfunctions
application a computer program designed to accomplish a specific task or related set of tasks.
backward compatibility the task of engineering a new version of a product so that the new version works with previous versions of the product.
protected memory the ability of an operating system to provide applications with their own area of memory which cannot be accessed by other applications.

A Timeline History of Windows and its variants

1975 Microsoft formed
August 25, 1980 XENIX operating system announced by Microsoft.
August 12, 1981 MS-DOS 1.0 ships with the new IBM Personal Computer
March, 1983 MS-DOS 2.0 ships
November 10, 1983 Microsoft Windows announced
November, 1984 MS-DOS 3.1 available
November 20, 1985 Microsoft Windows 1.0 released
April, 1986 MS-DOS 3.2 ships
April 2, 1987 Microsoft Operating System/2 (MS OS/2) announced, as part of a joint agreement between Microsoft and IBM

That same day, Microsoft announces MS-DOS 3.3, Windows 2.0 and Windows /386.  These new versions are the first with overlapping windows.

June 28, 1988 Windows /286 and /386 versions 2.1 announced
July, 1988 MS-DOS 4.0 released (ugh)
October 31, 1988 OS/2 1.1 with Presentation Manager ships.

David Cutler, formerly of Digital and now working for Microsoft, begins work on Windows NT.

November, 1988 MS-DOS 4.01 shipped to correct 4.0 problems
May 22, 1990 Microsoft releases Windows 3.0.  First version of Windows to allow use of memory beyond 640Kb.
October, 1991 Windows NT is displayed publicly at a demo at COMDEX.
October 20, 1991 Windows 3.0 with Multimedia Extensions released.
June, 1991 MS-DOS 5.0 ships.
April 6, 1992 Windows 3.1 released.  Adds TrueType fonts and many other features.
October 27, 1992 Windows for Workgroups 3.1 released, adding easier, integrated networking.
March, 1993 MS-DOS 6.0 ships.
August, 1993 Windows NT 3.1 released.  It consists of over 6 million lines of code.
November, 1993 MS-DOS 6.2 released.
February 15, 1994 Windows for Workgroups 3.11 released.
March 2, 1994 MS-DOS 6.21 ships with drive compression removed due to a law suit.
April 11, 1994 MS-DOS 6.22 ships with new DriveSpace drive compression.
September 6, 1994 Windows NT 3.5 released.  It consists of over 9 million lines of code.
April 20, 1995 Frank Condron's World O'Windows begins operation (sorry, couldn't resist!)
June, 1995 Windows NT 3.51 released.  Minor release is to support upcoming Windows 95 programs.
August 24, 1995 Windows 95 released.
August 24, 1996 Windows NT 4.0 released.  It consists of over 16 million lines of code.
November, 1996 Windows CE 1.0 released, supporting handheld-PCs
September, 1997 Windows NT 5.0 Beta 1 released.
November, 1997 Windows CE 2.0 released
December, 1997 Windows NT 4.0 Option Pack released
June 25, 1998 Windows 98 released.
July, 1998 Windows CE 2.1 released, supporting palm-sized PCs
August 1998 Windows NT 5.0 Beta 2 released to testers
October 27, 1998 Microsoft announces that Windows NT 5.0 will be renamed "Windows 2000"
April 29, 1999 Windows 2000 Beta 3 released to testers
May 5, 1999 Windows 98 Second Edition released
July, 1999 Windows 2000 Release Candidate 1 released to testers
August 25, 1999 Microsoft and Compaq discontinue all Windows NT/2000 development for the Alpha processor
September 19, 1999 Windows 2000 Release Candidate 2 released to testers
November 17, 1999 Windows 2000 Release Candidate 3 released to testers
November 29, 1999 "Millennium" beta 2, successor to Windows 98SE, sent to beta testers
December 15, 1999 Windows 2000 released to manufacturing (i.e., coding completed)
February 17, 2000 Windows 2000 Professional, Server, and Advanced Server released.

A Feature-based Comparison

Operating System DOS-basedGUIMultitaskingBus-WidthProtected Memory
DOSof course NO none 16-bit No
Win 3.1runs on top of DOS YES cooperative 16-bit No
Win95backward compatibility YES cooperative for Win16
preemptive for Win32
32-bit Yes
Win98backward compatibility YES cooperative for Win16
preemptive for Win32
32-bit Yes
WinNT 4.0fresh design YES preemptive 32-bit Yes

Win32 vs. Win16